Thursday, August 28, 2014

The Hollimans of England, Part 2

by Glenn N. Holliman

An Important Update....

In our last posting, Lindsay Holliman, published a 16th Century Will by one of his great grandfathers, William Holyman, d. 1557, of Cuddington, Buckinghamshire.  After continued research and the study of this and other Holyman wills, professional Buckinghamshire genealogist, Anne G. Holmes, believes that this William was a brother of Christopher Holyman, d 1588 in Sherington, Buckinghamshire.  As noted by published research in this space, the evidence points to this Christopher is my 9th great grandfather.

This means that Lindsay, b. 1946, and this writer, b. 1946, are descended from the same great grandfather, one Thomas Holyman who died in 1558 in Cuddington!  Earlier this year DNA testing revealed we had a common distant ancestor.  Our paper trails and DNA have come together!

Above, a photograph taken in Cuddington, Buckinghamshire.  Left to right are Anne Holmes, Lindsay and his wife, Madeleine Holliman, and Carol Stonham, owner of the Holyman farm on which the group visited in June 2014.

Anne Holmes has produced the most complete and well-researched thesis on our Holyman families from the 1500s.  As this is an important family document, I print her words in their entirety for current and future generations to study. 

"The evidence reasonably suggests that this William (d 1557) was the son of the Thomas who died in 1558. Both William and Thomas possibly died of a flu like fever that swept through England in 1557 and 1558 in epidemic proportions.

Perhaps the children of Thomas and his two wives could be shown on a family tree as a ‘blended family’ as it is difficult to ascertain to which mother, Margaret or Dorothy, some of the children of Thomas belonged. There was another John Holliman, son of William, who could have been Lindsay’s ancestor but this John too probably died in the epidemic of 1558. I will update the early elements of the Holyman family tree as best can be done and forward a copy in the form of a descendant chart.

Looking back on my notes from autumn of 2012 on HOLLIMAN Wills examined and the genealogical information found in them, I think it is very likely that the William HOLLIMAN who died in 1557 was the half brother of Christopher HOLLIMAN, both sons of Thomas HOLYMAN.

The Thomas HOLYMAN who died in 1558 is the only known recorded Thomas HOLYMAN alive at that time resident in Cuddington. That is not to say there was not another unrecorded Thomas HOLYMAN living in the Cuddington locality mid C16 but the Thomas HOLYMAN who died in 1558 appears to be the only landholder of that name in Cuddington in the mid sixteenth century. Thomas HOLYMAN, and his then wife Margaret, are earlier recorded in a land conveyance document relating to the Manor of Haddenham and Cuddington dated 1539, that is nineteen years before Thomas died in 1558.

From Thomas’ Will, it is known several of his children were under 21 years of age in August 1558 (Will dated 9 August). The two oldest surviving sons of Thomas, that is Richard and Francis, inherited land directly from their father on his death in 1558; therefore it reasonable to presume Richard and Francis were the sons from Thomas’ previous marriage to Margaret and of full age. 

The next two eldest sons due to inherit land were George and John. As they were mentioned to inherit land in the Will, these two sons were probably close to being of full age, so could have been the sons of either Margaret or Dorothy. Daughter Margaret possibly was possibly the child of wife Margaret, but as it is not known when Margaret died, this daughter could have been named in honour of a deceased wife and have been Dorothy’s daughter.

The children from the marriage of Thomas HOLYMAN and Dorothy CLARK were probably Christopher (after his maternal grandfather), Dorothy (after her mother) and youngest child Elizabeth. The other children could have been those of Margaret or Dorothy depending on their ages in 1558 and the date Margaret died. In the list of children of Thomas, it is noted there is no Thomas named after his father. I suspect there may have been a son Thomas who possibly died before 1558.

Returning to William’s Will of 1557, it is noted his son Thomas, although not the eldest son, is to inherit land from his grandfather Thomas HOLLIMAN. It is though the choice of child Thomas to inherit the land is to preserve the namesake of his grandfather, as there was no son Thomas of Thomas to carry on the landholding. This tradition can be seen again in the children of Christopher HOLYMAN (d 1588 in Sherington). 

Christopher’s daughter Usselly or Ursula is singled out to inherit from her grandmother more than her sisters, a special inheritance. It appears this is the case because daughter Ursula has been given the name of her grandmother Ursula (LEE). I think for perhaps this reason, and also that there appears to be no other known adult Thomas HOLYMAN around at that time, that William HOLLIMAN was the son of Thomas and Margaret HOLLIMAN. Thomas senior also had an uncle named William HOLLIMAN (d 1547).

The other area of ambiguity concerns the John HOLLIMAN, father of Robert who died in 1600. Which John was he? There was another William HOLLIMAN in Cuddington who also had a son named John. This William, uncle of Thomas, as stated died in 1547. His Will names his two children as John and Elyne, therefore this William was probably the son of the John HOLYMAN who died in 1521. Another John HOLYMAN died in Cuddington in 1558. This John’s Will names his children as Richard and Katharine. The most likely hypothesis is that this John who died in 1558 was the grandson of the John who died in 1521, and the John who died in 1600 was the son of the William who died in 1557, as recorded in Lindsay’s ancestral tree. 

Whichever is the correct lineage, it seems the common ancestor of Glenn and Lindsay is most likely Thomas HOLYMAN (d 1558), but if not then Thomas’ grandfather John HOLYMAN (d 1521)." 

Below, Lindsay and Glenn, both surnamed Holliman, born the same year 1946, Lindsay in England and Glenn in Alabama, USA, stand by Holyman's barn mews in Cuddington, Buckinghamshire in June 2014.  Both are descended through great grandparents who lived and worked the farm in the 15th and 16th Centuries.

Anne Holmes continues...."There were three known male HOLYMAN deaths of note in Cuddington in less than two years (1557-1558). I have been doing some research on the Tudor inhabitants of my home village, and I have noted there is a marked increase in Wills written in the year 1558. Talking to other local historians, they have also noted this increase in deaths around 1558. It appears there was an event outside the norm happening locally at this time.

From Charles Creighton’s 1894 publication A History of Epidemics in Britain: Volume 2 p 306 -
……It is known from the general historians that there were two seasons of fever all over England in 1557 and 1558, of which the latter was more deadly, the type according to Stow, being ‘quartan agues’. In letters of the time the epidemic of 1557 is variously named………..Next year in 1558, the epidemic sickness returned in the summer and autumn, in a worse form than before….

The collective evidence suggests William HOLLIMAN (d 1557), John HOLLIMAN (d 1558) and Thomas HOLYMAN (d 1558) were probably all struck down by the flu like fever in the epidemic of 1557 and 1558. It is possible John HOLYMAN, the Bishop of Bristol, may have also succumbed to the same fever. The Bishop’s Will was written 4 June 1558 and it is stated in Crieghton’s book that priests were particularly vulnerable to the fever due to their contact with so many people.

It is probable these four HOLYMAN individuals wrote their Wills in 1557 and 1558 knowing that death was probably imminent for them.  It is not known how many other HOLYMANS may have succumbed to the fever epidemic of 1557 and 1558. Cuddington parish registers have not survived for this period so it is possible Christopher HOLYMAN may have lost some young siblings to the fever. 

Thomas’ sons Richard, Francis, John and Christopher, from their Wills and mentions in siblings Wills, did survive. Daughters Dorothy and Katharine also appear to have survived, but it has been difficult to trace what happened to the remainder of Thomas’ children. It is interesting the Creighton quotes a contemporary observer of 1558, who describes the ague as

….A dainty mouthed disease, which passing by poor people, fed generally on principal persons of greatest wealth and estate…

Queen Mary died of the lingering effects of an ague in the autumn of 1558. It is thought she too was a victim of the epidemic." - Anne G. Holmes 2014

Concerning the flu which took so many lives in the mid 16th Century, Lindsay Holliman has found this statement in a National Institute of Health paper at

"The pandemic of spring 1557 is the first in which global involvement and westward spread from Asia to Europe was documented. Unlike the pandemic that appeared 47 years previously, this one was highly fatal, with deaths recorded as being due to ‘pleurisy and fatal peripneumony’. High mortality in pregnant women was also recorded. Examination of Parish registries in England showed a high frequency of excess deaths from 1558 to 1560, representing the first documentation of excess influenza deaths in a defined population, and suggesting that the disease prevailed for at least two years, conceivably having exhibited one or more recurrences." 

Below, Glenn Holliman and Anne Holmes study her notes in Cuddington, Buckinghamshire, June 2014.

The above is complicated, and to increase our understanding, Anne has prepared a 16th Century family tree of the Holymans of Cuddington.  Jeanette Holiman Stewart, the keeper of the Holyman/Hollyman Tree, has incorporated Anne's work into a massive 18,000 names work!  Jeanette is constantly updating and adding new names.  The most complete record of the Holymans of the 1500s can be found at this site. One can contact Jeanette at or email me at for copies of Anne's detailed diagrams. - GNH

Next more on Lindsay''Hollimans ancestors and their participation in the growing affluence of English life in the 19th and 20th Centuries....

Have questions about Holliman family history? You are invited to join the Hollyman Email List at and the Hollyman Family Facebook Page located on Facebook at "Hollyman Family". Post your questions and perhaps one of the dozens Holyman cousins on the list will have an answer. For more information contact Tina Peddie at, the list and Facebook manager for Hollyman (and all our various spellings!).

Saturday, August 2, 2014

The Hollimans of England, Part 1

by Glenn N. Holliman

Recently, this American writer along with Lindsay Holliman, an Englishman with whom most Hollimans (various spellings) in the United States share the same 15th and 16th Century great grandparents, visited common ancestral sites in Long Crendon and Cuddington, Buckinghamshire, England

As best we can research, my ancestors moved from Cuddington in the latter third of the 1500s, via Sherington in Buckinghamshire to Bedford, Bedfordshire. Then in the middle 1600s Christopher Holyman emigrated to Isle of Wight County, Virginia where he died in 1691, a successful planter.   

While my branch of Holymans were crossing the Atlantic and then progressing from Virginia and the Carolinas, trekking ever westward and approaching the Civil War, Lindsay's ancestors remained in Cuddington before moving to a neighboring village of Long Crendon in the late 18th century. As with most Englishmen away from the towns and cities, they were striving to earn their daily bread and raise families by working the land.  Lindsay kindly shares of his knowledge and research.  GNH
Where else would an Englishman take an American cousin to discuss family history?  Why to the local pub!  Glenn, left, and Lindsay right, January 2014.

My Ancestors by Lindsay Holliman

Unlike in the States, where land was plentiful, from medieval times up to the 18th and 19th centuries, much of English land was under cultivation under the manorial open field system.   

Around villages or small towns the land was divided into three huge fields with two sown with crops and the third left fallow each year. Each farmer owned or rented some strips of land in each field and the ploughing of the strips moved soil towards the center.  Over many years the strips became ridges, and their edges, together with the ground between strips, became furrows. 
The diagram below shows  a typical manorial layout. The yellow areas were retained and farmed by the lord of the manor, whilst the white areas were cultivated by the remainder of the local farming hierarchy. As the name implies the green common areas were available to all for grazing livestock.

Significant areas of ridge and furrow still exist in parts of England in places where the land has been continually used for grazing and thus has never been ploughed since enclosure in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Enclosure divided the land in to fields surrounded by a fence or hedge – field boundaries which exist to this day.

Below is a Google Earth image of fields just outside Cuddington, Buckinghamshire. The grassed-over ridges and furrows can be seen clearly at center-left and it is almost certain that members of the Holyman family worked some of these strips. Cuddington Mill is top right, straddling the river.

Below is a map of Cuddington in 1900 showing the general layout of the village, location of Holyman’s Farm and Cuddington Mill in which, during the mid 1500s,  the Holyman family had interest.  Click to enlarge the map.  Study closely the village of Cuddington and one will find the Holyman Farm noted and located.

And now the Ancestors of Lindsay Holliman....

Thomas Holyman (ca 1500 - after 1557) – my 12th great grandfather
Little is known about Thomas, and the only reference to him found so far is in the will of his son, William, which was dated 1557. At the time of the writing of the will, Thomas was still alive and in possession of some small plot which William bequeathed to his son Thomas after the death of his grandfather.  My Thomas, in addition to being related to Glenn’s ancestors, would have been well known to them personally before they moved away from Cuddington.  
William Holyman (  - 1557) – 11th great grandfather
William of Cuddington was a husbandman (a free tenant farmer or small landowner, in social status just below yeoman).  It is evident that William was fairly young when he died because all three of his children, Laurens, John and Thomas, were below lawful age and his father was still alive. Insofar as I can read it his will was:
In the name of god Amen I Wylliam Holliman being hole and good and perfect of mynd and fitte in body dothe make this my last wyll and testament in the year of ower lord god 1557 and in the day of aprill and in the iii and for the yeare of the rayne of king Phi and quene mare king and quene of England france Eirland Defenders Napelles Jerusalem defenders of the faythe princes of Spayne and Sisselle archdukes of Styria dukes of   Mylane Burgandey and Brabant Countes of Has...r... Flanders and Tyrole that I, Wylliam Holliman of Codingtonne in the Countey of Buckinghame husbandman  ..ri..   bequeathe my sole unto almighty god and to ower blessed ladey Mare and to all the holli compa nye of heven and my bodey to be buried wt  in the church yarde of Codingtonne. It I gyve to the mother Churche of Lincoln iiid. It I give Annis my wyffe halfe my goods  the other halfe I doo give my three children, Laurens my oldest sonne to have the house and one yards land called  .....,  John my sonne to have ..ods some wt ..e yards land, Thomas my sonne shall have  .are.  wt  ..e  and halfe yard land after the desese of his grand father Thomas Hollyman, and Annie my wyfe to have the house and land in possession and occupying untill the children be of lawful aege and here I make my wyfe executor.

William would also have been well known to Glenn’s ancestors.

John Holyman (d ca 1600) – 10th great grandfather
John inherited some land from his father and, in his own will, he also described himself as a husbandman. His wife presumably predeceased him as she is not referred to in the will but he named five children – Robert, Thomas, Elizabeth, Charles and Jane. As was usual at the time Robert, the eldest son, inherited the “messuage”  (buildings and land associated with it). The younger children received the chattels.
Robert Holyman ( d 1638) – 9th great grandfather
Nothing is known of Robert’s wife, and he appears to have had only one child, Robert, who was a minor when the will was written in 1528. It is interesting that, in his will, Robert Sr.  charged his friend, William Longland, to bring young Robert up with “clothes in decent order ….  and fashion as he ought to be” and also that he be kept at school so that he learned to write. It is more than probable that he achieved this himself as he did not die for a further 10 years.
Robert Holyman (1620 – 1667) – 8th great grandfather
Robert Jr’s wife was Mary, and they had children Hester, Brightwell, Charles, Benjamin and Deborah. He inherited land from his father. There is little known about him as there is no surviving will. He died on 2 September 1667.
It is evident that the eldest son, took over the land and buildings.  Charles and Benjamin remained unmarried and the latter became a schoolmaster in Cuddington and the latter a carpenter. Benjamin held some land in his own right, and he left this to his nephew Robert Hollyman in his will dated 1735.  Charles also left his goods, chattels and personal effects to Robert.
Brightwell Hollyman (1650 – 1711) – 7th great grandfather
Brightwell was a yeoman who married Mary Wheeler in Ickford in 1694, and they had children Brightwell, Robert, Mary and John. All four children were under the age of 21 when he made his will, and he provided well for Mary for the rest of her life. Eldest son, Brightwell, inherited the buildings and land, but each of the children was left £100 with an additional £50+ when their mother died.
Brightwell was the first of four members of the Hollyman family to carry this forename. It is supposed, but not yet verified, that the name came from a Hollyman marriage to one of the Brightwell family of neighboring village of Chearsley. Possibly his mother, Mary, was a Brightwell.
Son Robert became a maltster in local village Chearsley. It was he who inherited from his uncles Benjamin and Charles above.

Brightwell Hollyman (1694 – 1761) or  John Hollyman (1700 - 1764)– 6th great grandfather.

Both of these were sons of Brightwell (1650 - 1711) and Mary Wheeler. They both had a son called John. Recent discussion has concluded that John is the most likely father of 5th great grandfather John (1725 - 1779).

Brightwell Hollyman (1694 – 1761) was christened in Cuddington  on 6 February 1694 and married Mary Gibbs in Hartwell, Buckingshire on 2 April 1719. The marriage resulted in four children – Brightwell, John, Mary and Hester.

John Hollyman (1700 - 1764) was christened in Cuddington on 27 December 1700.  He married Elizabeth West on 2 May 1731 in West Wycombe.  They had children - John (died age 4), James, Elizabeth, John, Robert and William.

John Holliman (ca 1730 - 1779) – 5th great grandfather
John married Sarah Steel at Waddesdon on 4 October 1762 following which they had six children Brightwell, James, Ben, Charles, Ann and Alice.  John, the second eldest child, does not appear to had much of an inheritance from his father and, similarly, had little to pass onto his children. His two eldest children were elderly agricultural laborers in the 1841 census – the second eldest, James, was my 4th great grandfather.

Next more on Lindsay's ancestors, their move away from Cuddington and prosperity before their later participation in the growing affluence of English life in the late 19th and 20th Centuries....

Have questions about Holliman family history? You are invited to join the Hollyman Email List at and the Hollyman Family Facebook Page located on Facebook at "Hollyman Family". Post your questions and perhaps one of the dozens Holyman cousins on the list will have an answer. For more information contact Tina Peddie at, the list and Facebook manager for Hollyman (and all our various spellings!).

There is also a massive Holyman and Associated Families Tree available for review.  For an invitation to this collection of over 18,000 individuals, please write

 GlennOn this matter there is no new information because it was already there in both versions. The difference was merely which of two possible fathers was the real father of John (ca 1730 - 1779). The two possible fathers were brothers Brightwell and John (1700 - 1764) both of who had a child called John.  I had gone for Brightwell as the father but Anne thought it was John. Her reasoning for it being John was given in her recent email on 30 August. Whilst we still cannot be sure, I was swayed by Anne's reasoning that John was the most likely candidate - and changed my tree accordingly.
Regarding the blog my 5th great grandfather remains John (1725 - 1779) and my 7th great grandfather remains Brightwell (1650 - 1711).In order to hedge our bets a possible alternative paragraph for my 6th great grandfather could be: